Causes of induced seismicity

A variety of human activities have been suggested to have induced seismicity. These include impounding surface water reservoirs, erecting tall buildings, engineering coastal land accretion, and removing mass from the surface by quarrying. The extraction of resources, including groundwater, coal, hydrocarbons and geothermal fluids, as well as tunnel excavation have also been reported to induce earthquakes, as have injection activities. Injection activities include waste fluid disposal, hydrofracturing (commonly known as hydraulic fracturing or fracking), research experiments, gas storage, enhanced oil recovery and carbon dioxide sequestration. Nuclear tests often induce local earthquakes, though we know of no reported cases of seismicity caused by chemical explosions.